Thermax’s extensive range of traditional and technically advanced boiler water treatment chemicals have been specifically developed to be used across a range of process and industrial boiler treatment applications. Thermax’s superior quality boiler products and specialist additives focus on improving the operational efficiency of steam boilers, industrial boilers and process systems by offering ready made solutions to the problems associated with such installations; namely scale formation, corrosion, boiler water carryover and sludge deposition.
Thermax’s range of chemical treatments includes traditional and novel oxygen scavengers, scale and corrosion inhibitors, condensate line treatments, pH adjusters, antifoams and sludge control agents.
Oxygen scavenging means preventing oxygen from introducing oxidation reactions. Most of the naturally occurring organics have a slightly negative charge. Due to that they can absorb oxygen molecules, because these carry a slightly positive charge, to prevent oxidation reactions from taking place in water and other liquids.
Oxygen scavengers include both volatile products, such as hydrazine (N2H4) or other organic products like carbohydrazine, hydroquinone, diethylhydroxyethanol, methylethylketoxime, but also non-volatile salts, such as sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) and other inorganic compounds, or derivatives thereof. The salts often contain catalysing compounds to increase the rate of reaction with dissolved oxygen, for instance cobalt chloride.
Corrosion is a general term that indicates the conversion of a metal into a soluble compound.
Corrosion can lead to failure of critical parts of boiler systems, deposition of corrosion products in critical heat exchange areas, and overall efficiency loss.
That is why corrosion inhibitors are often applied. Inhibitors are chemicals that react with a metallic surface, giving the surface a certain level of protection. Inhibitors often work by adsorbing themselves on the metallic surface, protecting the metallic surface by forming a film.
Scale is the precipitate that forms on surfaces in contact with water as a result of the precipitation of normally soluble solids that become insoluble as temperature increases. Some examples of scale are calcium carbonate, calcium sulphate, and calcium silicate.
Scale inhibitors are surface-active negatively charged polymers. As minerals exceed their solubility's and begin to merge, the polymers become attached. The structure for crystallisation is disrupted and the formation of scale is prevented. The particles of scale combined with the inhibitor will than be dispersed and remain in suspension.
During water treatment pH adjustments may also be required. The pH is brought up or down through addition of basics or acids. An example of lowering the pH is the addition of hydrogen chloride, in case of a basic liquid.
The pH will be converted to approximately seven to seven and a half, after addition of certain concentrations of acids or basics. The concentration of the substance and the kind of substance that is added, depend upon the necessary decrease or increase of the pH.
During the operation of a steam boiler small quantities of hardness salts are introduced, together with traces of suspended matter into the feed-water. Over time the concentrations of these salts and suspended matter build up, in the form of a 'sludge', and if not treated properly can settle on to heat transfer surfaces, eventually 'baking' on to form a hard crystalline scale.
Certain water treatment chemicals, phosphates for example, if added incorrectly could also precipitate and add to this scale problem. To avoid such situations, consideration should be given to the use of polymer based boiler water sludge conditioners to prevent the suspended solids from settling and 'baking' on to important boiler system surfaces. Polymer conditioners do this by keeping the unwanted matter (sludge) in solution, which can then be removed via the boiler blowdown.
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